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AN 3.70

MuluposathaSutta
The Roots of the Uposatha


Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
For free distribution only.

增支部 AN3.70
布萨根本经


坦尼沙罗尊者英译,良稹中译


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I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying in Savatthi at the Eastern Monastery, the palace of Migara's mother. Now at that time — it being the Uposatha day — Visakha, Migara's mother, went to the Blessed One in the middle of the day and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As she was sitting there the Blessed One said to her, "Well now, Visakha, why are you coming in the middle of the day?"

"Today I am observing the Uposatha, lord."

        如是我闻: 一时薄伽梵住在舍卫城附近的东寺弥诃罗母堂[1]。其时为布萨日,弥诃罗之母毗沙卡于日中往诣薄伽梵,近前顶礼后坐于一边。坐下后,薄伽梵对她说:“毗沙卡,你何以日中前来?”

“世尊,我今日持守布萨。”

"Visakha, there are these three Uposathas. Which three? The Uposatha of a cowherd, the Uposatha of the Jains, and the Uposatha of the Noble Ones.

        “毗沙卡,有这三种布萨。哪三种? 有牛倌的布萨、有耆那的布萨、有圣者的布萨。

"And what is the Uposatha of a cowherd? Just as when a cowherd returns the cattle to their owners in the evening, he reflects: 'Today the cattle wandered to that spot and this, drank at this spot and that; tomorrow they will wander to that spot and this, will drink at this spot and that'; in the same way, there is the case where a certain person observing the Uposatha reflects, 'Today I ate this sort of non-staple food and that sort of staple food. Tomorrow I will eat that sort of non-staple food and this sort of staple food.' He spends the day with an awareness imbued with that covetousness, with that greed. Such is the Uposatha of a cowherd, Visakha. When this Uposatha of a cowherd is undertaken, it is not of great fruit or great benefit, not of great glory or great radiance.

        “何为牛倌的布萨? 正如牛倌夜晚把牛群赶回主人家时,他想:‘今日牛群在那处、这处游荡,在这处、那处饮水; 明日它们将在那处、这处游荡,在这处、那处饮水'; 同样地,有此情形,某人持守布萨时想:‘今日我吃了这类副食、那类主食。明日我将吃那类副食、这类主食。'觉知为该觊觎所浸染、为该贪婪所浸染,他度过了那一日。毗沙卡,牛倌的布萨即是如此。持守这种牛倌布萨,是无大果报、大利益,无大荣耀、大光明的。

"And what is the Uposatha of the Jains? There are the contemplatives called the Niganthas (Jains). They get their disciple to undertake the following practice: 'Here, my good man. Lay down the rod with regard to beings who live more than 100 leagues to the east... more than 100 leagues to the west... more than 100 leagues to the north... more than 100 leagues to the south.' Thus they get the disciple to undertake kindness & sympathy to some beings, but not to others.

"On the Uposatha day, they get their disciple to undertake the following practice: 'Here, my good man. Having stripped off all your clothing, say this: "I am nothing by anything or of anything. Thus there is nothing by anything or of anything that is mine."' Yet in spite of that, his parents know of him that 'This is our child.' And he knows of them that 'These are my parents.' His wives & children know of him that 'This is our husband & father.' And he knows of them that 'These are my wives & children.' His workers & slaves know of him that 'This is our master.' And he knows of them that 'These are my workers & slaves.' Thus at a time when he should be persuaded to undertake truthfulness, he is persuaded to undertake falsehood. At the end of the night, he resumes the consumption of his belongings, even though they aren't given back to him. This counts as stealing, I tell you. Such is the Uposatha of the Jains, Visakha. When this Uposatha of the Jains is undertaken, it is not of great fruit or great benefit, not of great glory or great radiance.

        “那么,何为耆那的布萨? 有称为尼干子的沙门(指耆那教徒)。他们命弟子如此修持:‘如此,善男子。对居于东面一百多里的有情放下棍杖……对居于西面一百多里的有情……对居于北面一百多里的有情……对居于南面一百多里的有情放下棍杖。'如此,他们命弟子对某些有情、但不对其他有情施以仁慈与同情。

        “布萨日时,他们命弟子如此修持:‘如此,善男子。把你的所有衣服脱去,作如是说:“对任何依赖或隶属之事而言,我什么也不是。因此没有什么依赖我或隶属我。”'尽管如此,他的父母识得他:‘这是我们的孩子。'他识得他们:‘这是我的父母。'他的妻儿识得他:‘这是我们的丈夫、父亲。'他识得他们:‘这是我的妻儿。'他的雇工与家奴识得他:‘这是我们的主人。'他识得他们:‘这是我的雇工与家奴。'因此,在他应被劝诫持守真语时却被劝诫持守妄语。夜尽时,他恢复对自己所有物的享受,尽管它们并未归还给他。我告诉你,这算偷窃。毗沙卡,耆那的布萨即是如此。持守这种耆那的布萨,是无大果报、大利益,无大荣耀、大光明的。

"And what is the Uposatha of the Noble Ones? It is the cleansing of the defiled mind through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique?

"There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects the Tathagata, thus: 'Indeed, the Blessed One is worthy and rightly self-awakened, consummate in knowledge & conduct, well-gone, an expert with regard to the world, unexcelled as a trainer for those people fit to be tamed, the Teacher of divine & human beings, awakened, blessed.' As he is recollecting the Tathagata, his mind is calmed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned, just as when the head is cleansed through the proper technique. And how is the head cleansed through the proper technique? Through the use of cosmetic paste & clay & the appropriate human effort. This is how the head is cleansed through the proper technique. In the same way, the defiled mind is cleansed through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique? There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects the Tathagata... As he is recollecting the Tathagata, his mind is cleansed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned. He is thus called a disciple of the noble ones undertaking the Brahma-Uposatha. He lives with Brahma [= the Buddha]. It is owing to Brahma that his mind is calmed, that joy arises, and that whatever defilements there are in his mind are abandoned. This is how the mind is cleansed through the proper technique.

        “那么,何为圣者的布萨? 它是藉适当的技能,净化被污染的心。如何藉适当的技能,净化被污染的心?

        “有此情形,一位圣弟子如此忆念如来:‘的确,薄伽梵是一位阿罗汉、正自觉者、明行足、善逝者、世间解、无上调御者、人天之师、佛陀、薄伽梵。'随著他忆念如来,他的心平静下来,喜悦升起;心的杂染(心漏)被弃绝,有如头部藉适当的技能被洗净。头部如何藉适当的技能被洗净? 使用软膏、黏土与适当的人力。头部藉适当的技能被洗净,即是如此。那么,如何藉适当的技能,净化被污染的心? 有此情形,圣者的弟子忆念如来……随著他忆念如来,他的心平静下来,喜悦升起;心的杂染被弃绝。因此他被称为修持梵天布萨的圣者弟子。他与梵天[=佛陀]同住。是归功于梵天,他的心平静下来,喜悦升起,心中凡有杂染皆被弃绝。藉适当的技能,净化被污染的心,即是如此。

"[Again, the Uposatha of the Noble Ones] is the cleansing of the mind through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique?

"There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects the Dhamma, thus: 'The Dhamma is well-expounded by the Blessed One, to be seen here & now, timeless, inviting verification, pertinent, to be realized by the wise for themselves.' As he is recollecting the Dhamma, his mind is calmed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned, just as when the body is cleansed through the proper technique. And how is the body cleansed through the proper technique? Through the use of scouring balls & bath powder & the appropriate human effort. This is how the body is cleansed through the proper technique. In the same way, the defiled mind is cleansed through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique? There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects the Dhamma... As he is recollecting the Dhamma, his mind is cleansed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned. He is thus called a disciple of the noble ones undertaking the Dhamma-Uposatha. He lives with Dhamma. It is owing to Dhamma that his mind is calmed, that joy arises, and that whatever defilements there are in his mind are abandoned. This is how the mind is cleansed through the proper technique.

        “[再次,圣者的布萨]是藉适当的技能,净化被污染的心。如何藉适当的技能,净化被污染的心?

        “有此情形,一位圣弟子如此忆念法:‘法由薄伽梵善说,即时即地可见、无时相、邀人亲证,向内观照、由智者各自证知。'随著他忆念法,他的心平静下来,喜悦升起;心的杂染被弃绝,有如身体藉适当的技能被洗净。身体如何藉适当的技能被洗净? 使用擦球、浴粉与适当的人力。身体藉适当的技能被洗净,即是如此。那么,如何藉适当的技能,净化被污染的心?有此情形,圣者的弟子忆念法……随著他忆念法,他的心平静下来,喜悦升起;心的杂染被弃绝。 因此他被称为修持法布萨的圣者弟子。他与法同住。是归功于法,他的心平静下来,喜悦升起,心中凡有杂染皆被弃绝。藉适当的技能,净化被污染的心,即是如此。

"[Again, the Uposatha of the Noble Ones] is the cleansing of the mind through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique?

"There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects the Sangha, thus: 'The Sangha of the Blessed One's disciples who have practiced well... who have practiced straight-forwardly... who have practiced methodically... who have practiced masterfully — in other words, the four types [of noble disciples] when taken as pairs, the eight when taken as individual types — they are the Sangha of the Blessed One's disciples: worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of respect, the incomparable field of merit for the world.' As he is recollecting the Sangha, his mind is calmed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned, just as when clothing is cleansed through the proper technique. And how is clothing cleansed through the proper technique? Through the use of salt earth & lye & cow dung & the appropriate human effort. This is how clothing is cleansed through the proper technique. In the same way, the defiled mind is cleansed through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique? There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects the Sangha... As he is recollecting the Sangha, his mind is cleansed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned. He is thus called a disciple of the noble ones undertaking the Sangha-Uposatha. He lives with the Sangha. It is owing to the Sangha that his mind is calmed, that joy arises, and that whatever defilements there are in his mind are abandoned. This is how the mind is cleansed through the proper technique.

        “[再者,圣者的布萨]是藉适当的技能,净化被污染的心。如何藉适当的技能,净化被污染的心?

        “有此情形,一位圣弟子如此忆念僧伽:‘世尊的声闻僧伽弟子行道正善……行道正直……行道有方……行道卓越——换句话说,他们是四双、八辈圣者。那便是世尊的声闻僧伽弟子——值得布施、值得礼遇、值得供养、值得尊敬,是世界的无上福田。'随著他忆念僧伽,他的心平静下来,喜悦升起;心的杂染被弃绝,有如衣服藉适当的技能被洗净。衣服如何藉适当的技能被洗净? 使用盐土、碱水、牛粪干与适当的人力。衣服藉适当的技能被洗净,即是如此。那么,如何藉适当的技能,净化被污染的心? 有此情形,圣者的弟子忆念僧伽……随著他忆念僧伽,他的心平静下来,喜悦升起;心的杂染被弃绝。 因此他被称为修持僧伽布萨的圣者弟子。他与僧伽同住。是归功于僧伽,他的心平静下来,喜悦升起,心中凡有杂染皆被弃绝。藉适当的技能,净化被污染的心,即是如此。

"[Again, the Uposatha of the Noble Ones] is the cleansing of the mind through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique?

" There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects his own virtues, thus: '[They are] untorn, unbroken, unspotted, unsplattered, liberating, praised by the wise, untarnished, conducive to concentration.' As he is recollecting virtue, his mind is calmed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned, just as when a mirror is cleansed through the proper technique. And how is a mirror cleansed through the proper technique? Through the use of oil & ashes & chamois & the appropriate human effort. This is how a mirror is cleansed through the proper technique. In the same way, the defiled mind is cleansed through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique? There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects his own virtues... As he is recollecting virtue, his mind is cleansed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned. He is thus called a disciple of the noble ones undertaking the virtue-Uposatha. He lives with virtue. It is owing to virtue that his mind is calmed, that joy arises, and that whatever defilements there are in his mind are abandoned. This is how the mind is cleansed through the proper technique.

        “[再者,圣者的布萨]是藉适当的技能,净化被污染的心。如何藉适当的技能,净化被污染的心?

        “有此情形,一位圣弟子如此忆念他自己的戒德:‘不破不坏、无暇无疵、利于解脱、受智者赞扬、清净无染、趋向正定。’随著他忆念戒德,他的心平静下来,喜悦升起;心的杂染被弃绝,有如镜子藉适当的技能被洗净。衣服如何藉适当的技能被洗净? 使用油、灰、软皮与适当的人力。镜子藉适当的技能被洗净,即是如此。那么,如何藉适当的技能,净化被污染的心? 有此情形,圣者的弟子忆念自己的戒德……随著他忆念自己的戒德,他的心平静下来,喜悦升起;心的杂染被弃绝。因此他被称为修持戒德布萨的圣者弟子。他与戒德同住。是归功于戒德,他的心平静下来,喜悦升起,心中凡有杂染皆被弃绝。藉适当的技能,净化被污染的心,即是如此。

"[Again, the Uposatha of the Noble Ones] is the cleansing of the mind through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique?

"There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects the devas, thus: 'There are the Devas of the Four Great Kings, the Devas of the Thirty-three, the Yama Devas, the Contented Devas, the devas who delight in creation, the devas who have power over the creations of others, the devas of Brahma's retinue, the devas beyond them. Whatever conviction they were endowed with that — when falling away from this life — they re-arose there, the same sort of conviction is present in me as well. Whatever virtue they were endowed with that — when falling away from this life — they re-arose there, the same sort of virtue is present in me as well. Whatever learning they were endowed with that — when falling away from this life — they re-arose there, the same sort of learning is present in me as well. Whatever generosity they were endowed with that — when falling away from this life — they re-arose there, the same sort of generosity is present in me as well. Whatever discernment they were endowed with that — when falling away from this life — they re-arose there, the same sort of discernment is present in me as well.' As he is recollecting the devas, his mind is calmed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned, just as when a gold is cleansed through the proper technique. And how is gold cleansed through the proper technique? Through the use of a furnace, salt earth, red chalk, a blow-pipe, tongs, & the appropriate human effort. This is how gold is cleansed through the proper technique. In the same way, the defiled mind is cleansed through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique? There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects the devas... As he is recollecting the devas, his mind is cleansed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned. He is thus called a disciple of the noble ones undertaking the Deva-Uposatha. He lives with the devas. It is owing to the devas that his mind is calmed, that joy arises, and that whatever defilements there are in his mind are abandoned. This is how the mind is cleansed through the proper technique.

        “[再者,圣者的布萨]是藉适当的技能,净化被污染的心。如何藉适当的技能,净化被污染的心?

        “有此情形,一位圣弟子如此忆念天神:‘有四大王天的天神、有三十三天的天神、有夜摩天的天神、有兜率天的天神、有化乐天的天神、有他化自在天的天神、有梵众天的天神、有高于其上的天神。他们拥有何等信念,此世逝去时得以重生于该(天)界,同样的信念我也具备。他们拥有何等戒德,此世逝去时得以重生于该界,同样的戒德我也具备。他们拥有何等学问,此世逝去时得以重生于该界,同样的学问我也具备。他们拥有何等布施,此世逝去时得以重生于该界,同样的布施我也具备。他们拥有何等明辨,此世逝去时得以重生于该界,同样的明辨我也具备。’随著他忆念天神,他的心平静下来,喜悦升起;心的杂染被弃绝,有如金子藉适当的技能被提纯。金子如何藉适当的技能被提纯? 使用熔炉、盐土、红土、风管、钳与适当的人力。金子藉适当的技能被提纯,即是如此。那么,如何藉适当的技能,净化被污染的心?有此情形,圣者的弟子忆念天神……随著他忆念天神,他的心平静下来,喜悦升起;心的杂染被弃绝。 因此他被称为修持天神布萨的圣者弟子。他与天神同住。是归功于天神,他的心平静下来,喜悦升起,心中凡有杂染皆被弃绝。藉适当的技能,净化被污染的心,即是如此。

"Furthermore, the disciple of the noble ones reflects thus: 'As long as they live, the arahants — abandoning the taking of life — abstain from the taking of life. They dwell with their rod laid down, their knife laid down, scrupulous, merciful, compassionate for the welfare of all living beings. Today I too, for this day & night — abandoning the taking of life — abstain from the taking of life. I dwell with my rod laid down, my knife laid down, scrupulous, merciful, compassionate for the welfare of all living beings. By means of this factor I emulate the arahants, and my Uposatha will be observed.

        “再者,圣者的弟子如此观想:‘阿罗汉们终生离杀生、戒杀生。他们已放下杖、放下刀,为著一切有情的福利,谨慎、仁慈、有同情心。今天我也在这一日一夜之中,离杀生、戒杀生。我放下杖、放下刀,为著一切有情的福利,谨慎、仁慈、有同情心。以阿罗汉为楷模,藉修此戒,我持守布萨。'

"'As long as they live, the arahants — abandoning the taking of what is not given — abstain from taking what is not given. They take only what is given, accept only what is given, live not by stealing but by means of a self that has become pure. Today I too, for this day & night — abandoning the taking of what is not given — abstain from taking what is not given. I take only what is given, accept only what is given, live not by stealing but by means of a self that has become pure. By means of this factor I emulate the arahants, and my Uposatha will be observed.

        “‘终其一生,阿罗汉们离不予而取、戒不予而取。他们只取所予、只受所予; 非以窃取而生,而是清净而活。今天我也在这一日一夜之中,离不予而取、戒予而取。我只取所予、只受所予; 非以窃取而生,而是清净而活。以阿罗汉为楷模,藉修此戒,我持守布萨。'

"'As long as they live, the arahants — abandoning uncelibacy — live a celibate life, aloof, refraining from the sexual act that is the villager's way. Today I too, for this day & night — abandoning uncelibacy — live a celibate life, aloof, refraining from the sexual act that is the villager's way. By means of this factor I emulate the arahants, and my Uposatha will be observed.

        “‘终其一生,阿罗汉们离性事,操行贞洁,安住离欲,戒除村俗之人的性事。今天我也在这一日一夜之中,离性事,操行贞洁,安住离欲,戒除村俗之人的性事。以阿罗汉为楷模,藉修此戒,我持守布萨。'

"'As long as they live, the arahants — abandoning false speech — abstain from false speech. They speak the truth, hold to the truth, are firm, reliable, no deceivers of the world. Today I too, for this day & night — abandoning false speech — abstain from false speech. I speak the truth, hold to the truth, am firm, reliable, no deceiver of the world. By means of this factor I emulate the arahants, and my Uposatha will be observed.

        “‘终其一生,阿罗汉们离妄语、戒妄语。他们讲真语、不离真语,坚定、可靠。今天我也在这一日一夜之中,离妄语、戒妄语。我讲真语、不离真语,坚定、可靠。以阿罗汉为楷模,藉修此戒,我持守布萨。'

"'As long as they live, the arahants — abandoning fermented & distilled liquors that cause heedlessness — abstain from fermented & distilled liquors that cause heedlessness. Today I too, for this day & night — abandoning fermented & distilled liquors that cause heedlessness — abstain from fermented & distilled liquors that cause heedlessness. By means of this factor I emulate the arahants, and my Uposatha will be observed.

        “‘终其一生,阿罗汉们离导致失慎的蒸馏发酵的醉品、戒导致失慎的蒸馏发酵的醉品。今天我也在这一日一夜之中,离导致失慎的蒸馏发酵的醉品、戒导致失慎的蒸馏发酵的醉品。以阿罗汉为楷模,藉修此戒,我持守布萨。'

"'As long as they live, the arahants live on one meal a day, abstaining from food at night, refraining from food at the wrong time of day [from noon until dawn]. Today I too, for this day & night, live on one meal, abstaining from food at night, refraining from food at the wrong time of day. By means of this factor I emulate the arahants, and my Uposatha will be observed.

        “‘终其一生,阿罗汉们一时而食[2],戒夜间进食、离非时[指日中至次日黎明]而食。今天我也在这一日一夜之中,一时而食,戒夜间进食、离非时而食。以阿罗汉为楷模,藉修此戒,我持守布萨。'

"'As long as they live, the arahants abstain from dancing, singing, music, watching shows, wearing garlands, beautifying themselves with perfumes & cosmetics. Today I too, for this day & night, abstain from dancing, singing, music, watching shows, wearing garlands, beautifying myself with perfumes & cosmetics. By means of this factor I emulate the arahants, and my Uposatha will be observed.

        “‘终其一生,阿罗汉们戒歌舞、音乐、观看演艺、佩戴花环、以芳香与美容品美化自己。今天我也在这一日一夜之中,戒歌舞、音乐、观看演艺、佩戴花环、以香水与美容品美化自己。以阿罗汉为楷模,藉修此戒,我持守布萨。'

"'As long as they live, the arahants — abandoning high & imposing seats & beds — abstain from high & imposing seats & beds. They make low beds, on a pallet or a spread of straw. Today I too, for this day & night — abandoning high & imposing seats & beds — abstain from high & imposing seats & beds. I make a low bed, on a pallet or a spread of straw.'

        “‘终其一生,阿罗汉们离高广华丽的床与座位、戒高广华丽的床与座位。他们以简陋的床具或草铺卧于低矮之处。今天我也在这一日一夜之中,离高广华丽的床与座位、戒高广华丽的床与座位。他们以简陋的床具或草铺卧于低矮之处。以阿罗汉为楷模,藉修此戒,我持守布萨。'

"Such is the Uposatha of the Noble Ones, Visakha. When this Uposatha of the Noble Ones is undertaken, it is of great fruit & great benefit, of great glory & great radiance. And how is it of great fruit & great benefit, of great glory & great radiance?

        “毗沙卡,正是如此修持布萨八戒,有大果报、大利益、大荣耀、大光明。有多大的果报、多大的利益、多大的荣耀、多大的光明?

"Suppose that one were to exercise kingship, rule, & sovereignty over these sixteen great lands replete with the seven treasures, i.e., over the Angas, Maghadans, Kasis, Kosalans, Vajjians, Mallas, Cetis, Vansans, Kurus, Paρcalas, Macchas, Surasenas, Assakas, Avantis, Gandharans, & Kambojans: It would not be worth one-sixteenth of this Uposatha endowed with eight factors. Why is that? Kingship over human beings is a meager thing when compared with heavenly bliss.

        “假定某人君临、统辖、坐镇充满七种宝藏的这十六个大国——即,鸯伽国、摩竭陀国、迦尸国、拘萨罗国、拔祇国、末罗国、支提国、盘沙国、拘楼国、般闇罗国、婆蹉国、苏罗西那国、阿梭迦国、阿般提国、键陀罗国、剑洴沙国: 如此仍不值这布萨八戒的十六分之一。为什么? 人间的帝位,较之天界的喜乐,实在微不足道。

"Fifty human years are equal to one day & night among the Devas of the Four Great Kings. Thirty such days & nights make a month. Twelve such months make a year. Five hundred such heavenly years constitute the life-span among the Devas of the Four Great Kings. Now, it is possible that a certain man or woman — from having observed this Uposatha endowed with eight factors — on the break-up of the body, after death, might be reborn among the Devas of the Four Great Kings. It was in reference to this that it was said, 'Kingship over human beings is a meager thing when compared with heavenly bliss.'

        “人间五十年,是四大王天天神的一昼夜。如此三十昼夜为一月。如此十二月为一年。如此五百天年,为四大王天天神的寿命。某位男子或女子修持布萨八戒,身坏命终时,就有可能投生于四大王天的天神之中。毗沙卡,有指于此,我才说:‘人间的王位,较之天界的喜乐,实在微不足道。'

"A human century is equal to one day & night among the Devas of the Thirty-Three. Thirty such days & nights make a month... One thousand such heavenly years constitute the life-span among the Devas of the Thirty-three. Now, it is possible that a certain man or woman — from having observed this Uposatha endowed with eight factors — on the break-up of the body, after death, might be reborn among the Devas of the Thirty-three. It was in reference to this that it was said, 'Kingship over human beings is a meager thing when compared with heavenly bliss.'

        “人间一百年,是三十三天天神的一昼夜。如此三十昼夜为一月。如此十二月为一年。如此一千天年,为三十三天天神的寿命。某位男子或女子修持布萨八戒,身坏命终时,就有可能投生于三十三天的天神之中。毗沙卡,有指于此,我才说:‘人间的王位,较之天界的喜乐,实在微不足道。'

"Two human centuries are equal to one day & night among the Yama Devas... Two thousand such heavenly years constitute the life-span among the Yama Devas...

        “人间两百年,是夜摩天天神的一昼夜……如此两千天年,为夜摩天天神的寿命……

"Four human centuries are equal to one day & night among the Contented Devas... Four thousand such heavenly years constitute the life-span among the Contented Devas...

        “人间四百年,是兜率天天神的一昼夜……如此四千天年,为兜率天天神的寿命……

"Eight human centuries is equal to one day & night among the devas who delight in creation... Eight thousand such heavenly years constitute the life-span among the devas who delight in creation...

        “人间八百年,是化乐天天神的一昼夜……如此八千天年,为化乐天天神的寿命……

"Sixteen human centuries are equal to one day & night among the devas who have power over the creations of others. Thirty such days & nights make a month. Twelve such months make a year. Sixteen thousand such heavenly years constitute the life-span among the devas who have power over the creations of others. Now, it is possible that a certain man or woman — from having observed this Uposatha endowed with eight factors — on the break-up of the body, after death, might be reborn among the devas who have power over the creations of others. It was in reference to this that it was said, 'Kingship over human beings is a meager thing when compared with heavenly bliss.'"

        “人间一千六百年,是他化自在天天神的一昼夜。如此三十昼夜为一月。如此十二月为一年。如此一万六千天年,为他化自在天天神的寿命。某位男子或女子修持布萨八戒,身坏命终时,就有可能投生于他化自在天的天神之中。毗沙卡,有指于此,我才说:‘人间的王位,较之天界的喜乐,实在微不足道。'”

One should not kill a being
        or take what is not given;
should not tell a lie
        or be a drinker of strong drink;
should abstain from uncelibacy, the sexual act;
should not eat at night, the wrong time of day;
should not wear a garland or use a scent;
should sleep on a pallet, a mat spread on the ground —
for this eight-factored Uposatha
has been proclaimed by the Awakened One
to lead to the end
        of suffering & stress.

人应当不杀生;
        不取未予之物;
不说谎;
        不饮酒,
不作性事淫行;
不非时而食;
不戴花环、不饰芳香;
应当以草席地铺为床:
——因为这是佛陀教导的布萨八戒,
        它趋向忧苦的止息。

The moon & sun, both fair to see,
shedding radiance wherever they go,
& scattering darkness as they move through space,
brighten the sky, illumining the quarters.
Within their range is found wealth:
        pearl, crystal, beryl,
        lucky-gem, platinum, nugget-gold,
        & the refined gold called 'Hataka.'
                Yet they —
        like the light of all stars
        when compared with the moon —aren't worth one sixteenth of the eight-factored Uposatha.

美丽的日月;
        所行之处,驱散黑暗,
        闪耀天空、照亮四方。
此间的宝藏:
        珍珠、钻石、绿玉、
               金块、铂金、与名为荷踏卡的细金,
它们与布萨八戒相比,
        好似众星之光与月光相比,
        不足其十六分之一。

So whoever — man or woman —
is endowed with the virtues
of the eight-factored Uposatha,
having done meritorious deeds,
productive of bliss,
        beyond reproach, goes
        to the heavenly state.

因此,凡持布萨八戒,
有此戒德的男女,
        以修持的福德,
        与喜乐的果报,
               无可责咎,
               升入天界。

最近訂正 4-11-2007